The proceeds of consulting services are recognized according to the treasury method only when the company receives the payment. If the business uses the cash method, the $5,000 in revenue will be recognized on November 25, when the business receives the payment. Although the IRS does not require a single accounting policy for all businesses, it does impose certain restrictions that affect the accounting policy a company can use. For example, a company cannot apply the cash flow method if it is a business (other than S company) with average annual gross revenues greater than $26 million in 2021 and $27 million in 2022. The accounting basis for the year is the concept of accounting for income and expenses as incurred. The application of this approach also has an impact on the balance sheet, in which receivables or liabilities can be recognised even without the receipt of cash or the associated cash payment. The general concept of accrual accounting is that economic events are recognized by allocating revenues to expenditure (matching principle) at the time the transaction occurs and not at the time of payment or receipt of payment. This method combines current cash inflows or outflows with expected future cash inflows or outflows to obtain a more accurate picture of a company`s current financial position. This method was born from the increasing complexity of business transactions and the desire to obtain more accurate financial information. Credit sales and projects that provide revenue streams over a long period of time affect a company`s financial situation at the time of a transaction.

It is therefore logical that such events should also be reflected in the financial statements of the same reporting period in which those transactions take place. The accrual method of accounting recognizes the consulting firm`s $5,000 revenue when the client`s services have been completed, even if the cash payment has not yet been received from the client. As a result, revenues of $5,000 as of October 30 are recorded as earned. The sale is recorded in an account called trade receivables, which can be found in the Current Assets section of the balance sheet. Accounts receivable represent money owed by customers that has not yet been received. Although the accumulation method provides a more accurate picture of the current state of the business, its relative complexity makes implementation more expensive. Accrual accounting tends to provide a more consistent recognition of income and expenses over time and is therefore considered by investors to be the most valid accounting system for determining a company`s results of operations, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In particular, it supports the principle of matching, whereby income and all related expenses must be recognised during the same reporting period; In this way, it should be possible to see the full extent of the profits and losses associated with certain transactions in a single reporting period. Suppose an appliance store sells a refrigerator to a customer to get credit. Depending on the terms of its agreement with its customers, it may take several months or years for the store to receive full payment from the customer for the refrigerator. With accrual accounting, the store captures accumulated revenue from sales when the refrigerator leaves the store, not at a specific time in the future. Accrual accounting is the standard approach to recording transactions for all large companies.

This concept is different from cash accounting, where income is recorded when receiving cash and expenses when paying cash. For example, a business that operates on a period-by-period accounting basis will record a sale as soon as it issues an invoice to a customer, while a cash-based business would instead wait for it to be paid before recording the sale. Similarly, an accrual-based entity enters an accrued expense, while a cash-based entity would wait to pay its supplier before recording costs. Accrual accounting is supported in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and International Accounting Standards (IFRS). Both accounting frameworks provide guidance for the recognition of sales and expenses in the absence of income or cash payments that would trigger the recording of a transaction on a cash basis. .